Saturday, March 15, 2008

Sasquatch Experience Returns Tonight!!!!!!

And Sean and James will have their new co-host, the lovely and talented Melissa Hovey as their new co-host. They have a guest lined up, but have not revealed the identity of that guest as of yet. But, the show starts at 9:00 EST/8:00 Central and will run for 90 minutes (seems to be a popular format these days) at And as always, we encourage you to please tune in and support great research.

Bigfoot Mystery this evening...

Darin and JC will have as their guest author/investigator Linda Godfrey beginning at 7:00 EST/6:00 Central at And as always, we encourage you to please tune in and support great research.

HBM's Crypto-Corner Today...

I will be having a discussion of Thunderbirds beginning at 5:00 EST/4:00 Central at And as always, we encourage you to please tune in and support great research.

Bigfoot/Cryptozoology DVD Reviews Redux

Review: Ancient Mysteries: Bigfoot

4.0 out of 5 stars Great and fair assessment of the subject matter, December 25, 2007
This documentary, originally aired in 1994 on A&E, was very well-done and was very fair as to its assessments of the Bigfoot Mystery. Luminaries in the Bigfoot field such as the late Dr. Grover Krantz, Peter Byrne, Scott Herriott, Al Hodgson and Roderick Sprague are interviewed about their research and their opinions on the hunt for these elusive creatures. Byrne was running the Bigfoot Research Project at that time out of Parkdale, Oregon, and is shown in the field investigating a sighting. Dr. Krantz is shown in his lab at Washington State University with his footprint casts and his Gigantopithecus model based on the jawbone of the mystery primate. Herriott's video (along with Darryl Owen's) are both shown, as is the Patterson/Gimlin Movie, with narration from Gimlin. Skeptical scientist John Crane is also interviewed about his opinions on the subject. This version is slightly different from the original, with Leonard Nimoy (In Search Of...) as the narrator, and some clips are edited a little differently, but overall it is the same one seen in 1994. It ends in Willow Creek, California during the Bigfoot Daze celebration with different townspeople giving their assessments of the reality of the creature, as well as the cultural influences Bigfoot has had through the years. I do recommend this documentary for anyone's Cryptozoology collection.

DVD Review: East Coast Bigfoot Conference 2004

This 3-Disc set is chock-full of terrific presentations from top Bigfoot and Paranormal researchers, some from Pennsylvania, others from as far away as California. Eric Altman, the Pennsylvania Bigfoot Society Chairman, starts off the set with an overview of recent (at that time) activity in the Keystone State, featuring sightings and footprint finds, some of which are deemed hoaxes. Next, Daniel Perez gives an excellent presentation on the Patterson/Gimlin Movie, even inviting a 6'4" man up to attempt to duplicate "Patty's" walk (which the man attempts rather clumsily but does not measure up to the creature in the film). Rounding out Disc 1 are two short interviews with Perez and Altman, as well as a photo presentation of investigations by the PBS and Pennsylvania Researchers Organization (PRO) into different hotspots of activity. Disc 2 has two excellent presentations, first one by Bigfoot/Paranormal researcher Travis McHenry, who explains that he is not of the opinion that Bigfoot is paranormal, but believes people may be seeing ghosts of Bigfoot in SOME cases, and also that Bigfoot is not necessarily connected to UFOs just because a person sees a BF coming out of a spacecraft. Mike Frizzell of the Enigma Project gives an excellent presentation on some investigations he and his group conducted into activity in New Jersey and Georgia, the Georgia activity taking place over 40 years ago. William Dranginis is shown next giving a tour of his Bigfoot RV and the equipment he uses in the field. Disc 2 rounds out with interviews with McHenry and Frizzell and a photo gallery of the Conference. Disc 3 has two excellent presentations on ghosts by Rick Fisher and Rosemary Ellen Guiley, interviews with the two of them and the trailer for the DVD. The entire set is professionally done from top to bottom, absolutely top-notch, and all the speakers are clear and concise. Craig Hines did an absolutely excellent job on this entire set, and should be commended. EXCELSIOR!!!!!!

DVD Review: Spotlight on The Patterson/Gimlin Film: The M.K. Davis Theory

This documentary, produced by John Johnsen (Keeping The Watch) and M.K. Davis is very well-produced and professionally done. The first 10-15 minutes is devoted to different film stocks and the resolution which can come from each. Chromatic Aberration is also discussed. The theories and enhancements of Davis are shown next, with full explanations as to all of them, such as the humanness of the creature, humanlike lips, the explanation for the alleged saggital crest and other theoretical assessments on the possible humanity of "Patty." There is also a possibility of more than one creature being seen in the film as well. The historical perspective and possible origins of the Pacific Northwest Bigfoot is also discussed. M.K. also reads the preamble to his upcoming book he is writing on these theories and the history behind them. I do recommend this documentary if for nothing else, as a conversation piece. I would give it 3 1/2 out of four stars.

DVD Review: Keeping the Watch

This documentary is about six independent researchers, and it's a good one. John L. Johnsen interviews, edits, produces and directs this hour-long documentary, which follows Dan Jackson of Florida, former researcher, talking about his foray into Skunk Ape research (he is now retired from research due to a terrifying experience he had with a creature); M.K. Davis of Mississippi is profiled next, discussing his groundbreaking work into the Patterson/Gimlin film; Chanda (no last name) discusses her habituation research in Missouri, which seems to be controversial to some, but may be credible; Carol Solomon, also of Florida, who describes a dead cow she found which the buzzards wouldn't touch, as well as strange tree and grass formations she has found in her area; David Shealy of Florida, controversial researcher (and possible hoaxer) discusses his activity and research into the Skunk Ape. Lloyd Pye is interviewed last, regarding hominoids such as Bigfoot, Yeti, Almas and other mystery primates all around the world. He gives his uncensored opinions of these events. This is a well-done and well-researched documentary, and well-worth purchasing. It can be purchased at

Grendel Films

DVD Review: Hunt The Dogman

This is a truly creepy, unusual and well-done documentary, from John Johnsen and Grendel Films (Keeping The Watch, Spotlight On The Patterson/Gimlin Film: The M.K. Davis Theory). It begins with a look at a property where a house once stood in the state of Kentucky, which was the residence of Dogman researcher Barton Nunnelly, who tells of sightings of hairy creatures and black panthers in the area. It switches next to an interview with Bart's mother, Rose Jenkins, who describes some encounters she has had with a large half-man, half-dog creature, including a sighting she had through her window as a girl where she saw a creature with a white shirt on. Next, an individual only known as "Roy" is given an extensive interview in which he describes encounters he has had with the unusual creature, including a heart attack and near-death experience he had. He also says he saw a portal of some sort which the creatures could travel in and out of between dimensions, and also claims that the creatures communicated with him telepathically. Next, famed Dogman researcher Linda Godfrey is interviewed about her impressions of these beasts in Wisconsin and Michigan, as well as Texas, Alabama, Florida and other states. Next, a piece of footage known as the "Gable FIlm" is shown and examined, and is apparently being examined by M.K. Davis, who is extremely disturbed by it according to Johnsen. The film shows a large doglike individual running towards the cameraman, and we see a set of canine teeth bite down on the camera lens. The film is in the hands of an individual named Steve Cook, who has declared it a hoax. Next, an individual named Jan Thompson is interviewed about her encounters at Land Between The Lakes, also in the Bluegrass State, as well as a mysterious murder of an entire family in the area which allegedly took place in the early-'80's. Finally, night footage of a stakeout is shown, with no results. This is a very top-notch documentary, and carries on in the tradition of Johnsen's other two documentaries. I give this one 4 1/2 out of 5 stars.

DVD Review: The Legend of The Honey Island Swamp Monster

This documentary, produced by author Dana Holyfield, granddaughter of Harlan Ford, who claimed to have seen a mysterious creature in the Honey Island Swamp area of Louisiana, is a good assessment of the activity going on in that area. There are several eyewitness accounts given, as well as track discoveries which take place during filming. Lloyd Pye is also interviewed giving his opinions and assessments of what the creature could be and also his opinion of one of the track casts, and also there is a visit to Ricky Hollifield (no relation) who shows the shoe that he showed to M.K. Davis and Jay Michael when they shot their documentary, but Holyfield points out that the casts she has are larger than the resin cast maker. Near the end of the documentary, there is a hunt for the creature in which we can hear it seemingly screaming, and a group of teens are partying with loud music going when they hear the screaming and decide to beat feet. Within the last few minutes of the documentary, a piece of film is shown of what could be the creature, but it is behind a grove of trees so it is really hard to tell. There is an enhancement shown of the film as well, but it sadly is no clearer. I would give this one oh, about a 4 out of 5 stars. I liked it.

DVD Review: Western Bigfoot Society Meeting 1992 with Peter Byrne

This was a bonus disc which came with a newly repackaged version of Shaawanoki, the award-winning DVD from Ronnie Roseman and Peter Byrne and Andreas Wallach, and it is very important historically and terrific. Byrne is filmed at a 1992 Western Bigfoot Society meeting giving his background into his research and he admits right at the start that he is no expert on Bigfoot, which is great to hear. After a brief background into his research, he takes audience questions and tells some fascinating stories of his exploits, including the fascinating story of how he smuggled the Pangboche hand's finger out of Nepal thanks to Jimmy and Gloria Stewart. Byrne also recounts the shooting of the Unsolved Mysteries segment he was involved with on the Yeti and shares an amusing anecdote on that. He talks quite a bit about his association with Tom Slick as well, and shares some fascinating stories of his association with Slick. At that time, Byrne was just beginning the Bigfoot Research Project and discussed that a bit as well. All in all, a fascinating look at a true pioneer of Bigfoot research, and an important piece of history. Highly recommended.

DVD Review: "Shaawanoki: The "Skunk Ape-Florida's Bigfoot"

Produced by: Peter Byrne, Ronnie Roseman and Andreas Wallach

This DVD documentary is very interesting and unique in that it focuses on the Florida version of Bigfoot, a creature the local Seminole Indians call "Shaawanoki" ("man of the swamps"). Interestingly enough, the local tribe does not believe in the Shaawanoki or that it exists! Peter Byrne, former big-game hunter and world-renowned Bigfoot pursuer, takes us through the swamps of Southern Florida, giving us a view of the truly primitive and desolate country that the Shaawanoki calls home. A series of photos taken by a British tourist allegedly of the creature is examined, and determined by Byrne's analysis to be a hoax, a man in a gorilla costume. However, a photo taken by former fire chief Vince Doerr seems to have some validity in Byrne's mind. We get a good glimpse of the local wildlife and also of Byrne's efforts to locate this creature, even though he has limited knowledge of the area or the creature. There are also interviews with witnesses of the creature. Byrne, Roseman, Wallach and two others, re-enacting the Shaawanoki in ape suits (Rara, Peter's daughter and longtime Bigfoot enthusiast Larry Lund) really give the documentary a comfortable and professional feel, and they are all to be commended. I highly recommend this DVD to all Bigfoot enthusiasts. It can be purchased at
Cryptoid Global Warming Sound Politics
In one we missed several days ago, the supposed demise of the famed Loch Ness Monster due to Global Warming is lamented. If Nessie is gone, do any remaining populations of "Nessiteras rhombopteryx" remain? Also, Norman Memorial Reminder, Happy Birthday, Scott T. Norman, Rebsamen Tribute: Scott T. Norman and Mythical Creatures.

The Hampden County Jail and House of Corrections in Springfield, MA, was the site of the state's last legal hanging. Is it now the home of a spirit? A local man has a photo snapped in the room where the last Massachusetts hanging took place that shows an apparent ghostly apparition. What is the image photographed by James A. Boone? Also, The Gen Lee Story: A Metaphysical Journey and Tales of Appalachian Banshees.

Pinky Expedition: High Walking

Posted by: Loren Coleman on March 15th, 2008

In the quest for cryptids, what mundane observations may have been converted into the extraordinary? What is the role of crocodilians in any confusion with Pinky? Photos.

Investigate Further: Pinky Expedition: High Walking »

Rebsamen Tribute: Scott T. Norman

Posted by: Loren Coleman on March 15th, 2008

Bill’s tribute on Scott’s birthday. Cryptomundo exclusive painting.

Investigate Further: Rebsamen Tribute: Scott T. Norman »

Happy Birthday, Scott T. Norman

Posted by: Loren Coleman on March 15th, 2008

Scott Norman Celebrating a good life, in the midst of so much that is not. Photos.

Investigate Further: Happy Birthday, Scott T. Norman »

Giant Skeleton Bones Found articles

"Sole Pads and Dermatogyphics of The Elk Wallow Footprints"

© Susan Cachel, Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University 1985

ABSTRACT: Sasquatch footprint casts from Elk Wallow (Walla Walla), previously examined in detail by Krantz (1983), are discussed with respect to the presence of a large sole pad. A sole pad is an important component in locomotion, and reconstructions of anatomy and gait must take it into account. Because large animals compensate for heavy weight principally through locomotor pattern, a large, unknown biped need not have enormous stresses acting on the moving lower limbs, but would have a gait different from living bipedal hominids. Anatomical reconstructions must also take this into account. Dermatoglyphic evidence, if abundant, can be used to reconstruct behavior. Hence, it is possible that future research utilizing prints and track ways of these large, unknown animals in the Pacific Northwest may yield more information about locomotion and behavior than is presently the case, if investigators are willing to entertain the possibility that the animals responsible for the prints may be unlike any known mammal in anatomy and locomotion. Krantz's (1983) identification of the prints as hominid, by virtue of an adducted hallux, is questioned.

In his recent paper on the Elk Wallow (Walla Walla) Sasquatch footprints, Krantz (1983) presents a detailed summary of the configurations of three footprint casts, paying particularly close attention to dermatoglyphic data. Skepticism as to whether dermatoglyphic patterns can be preserved on plaster casts is answered by Krantz's experimental proof that a human thumbprint can be transferred from skin to soil to plaster, and by the fact that criminal identification by dermatoglyphics from footprints imprinted in soil is acceptable procedure by police departments in two countries. Krantz then investigates the dermatoglyphic patterns of the casts, and concludes from this evidence that the makers of the prints were primates. Krantz further identifies the Elk Wallow prints as made by a specific category of primates, hominids (Krantz 1983: 53)--that is, members of the zoological family to which living humans and their extinct relatives belong.
In this paper, I shall examine the sole pad, a feature of the Elk Wallow prints, which Krantz does not discuss in as much detail as the dermatoglyphic evidence. This feature is, however, important for reconstructing anatomy and locomotion. I shall also examine the influence of body size on locomotion, and indicate some ways in which dermatoglyphic evidence, if more abundant, may be used to reconstruct elements of behavior. I conclude by stressing the probability that the makers of the Elk Wallow prints are unique among mammals in terms of anatomy and locomotion, and that identification of the prints as hominid in origin, on the basis of a single trait (an adducted hallux), is incorrect.

One of the striking morphological features documented by the casts is the apparent presence of an extremely thick, flexible pad on the sole of the Elk Wallow feet. Given the impression of a stone in the middle of the "full right" cast, and a photograph of the actual print with stone in place, Krantz (1983: 64) estimates the minimal thickness of this pad as slightly greater than 2 cm in the middle of the sole. Anatomical evidence from the gorilla, largest of the living primates, indicates that a sole pad can exist with dermatoglyphic patterns intact on the plantar surface. It is therefore possible for a very large mammal to possess a thick, flexible sole pad with dermatoglyphics, and not merely ridged skin.

One might assume, by analogy with living mammals possessing such pads (Morton 1935), that the sole pad of an unknown mammal would be composed of fat and tough, fibrous connective tissue. The thick, fibrous strands would bind the skin to the deep fascia (plantar aponeurosis), and would form small compartments of firm and resilient fat. The depth of the pad might vary along the foot according to weight-bearing considerations. A sole pad is therefore a biologically normal structure, and one can use evidence from living mammals to infer its general composition in a form whose anatomy is unknown. Is it possible to estimate the depth of the sole pad in the Elk Wallow creatures using available information on sole pad thickness in living mammals? Such information exists for two primate species, gorillas and hominids.

Fat and connective tissue comprise the sole pad in the gorilla. Thick skin covers the sole of the foot, and is underlain by fat and fibrous tissue at the lateral border of the foot. The depth of this pad increases posteriorly, and reaches a maximum depth of 2.5 cm under the heel (Raven 1950: 71). In modern, bipedal humans, the sole pad is an important weight-beating structure which is so compressible and shock-absorbing that a fall directly on the heel which shatters the calcaneus may leave no mark on the sole pad (Klenerman et al. 1976). The skin on the sole is thickened, especially at the heel, even in human fetuses, but the skin and the underlying pad of lobulated fat and collagen fibers is also subject to some variation in depth. Certain congenital diseases, accidents which result in the foot being placed in a cast, or prolonged bed rest may cause such thinning of the sole pad that walking is almost impossible. In acromegaly, this sole pad becomes very much thicker than normal, sometimes achieving a state "like a built-in layer of crepe rubber" (Klenerman et al. 1976: 137). Data on the average thickness of the human sole pad at the heel region do not seem to be readily available. In dissections of cadavers, the skin of the sole is so thick and firmly bound to the underlying lobulated fat that it is difficult to disclose the plantar aponeurosis; I would estimate a thickness of about 2 cm in the human cadaver. Histological study of the subcutaneous tissue of the gorilla foot seems to indicate a composition and thickness similar to that of man (Straus 1950: 217). An average greatest sole pad thickness of 2.5 cm may therefore be nearer the modem human norm.

Note that the sole pad is about the same thickness in hominids and gorillas, although gorilla weight is approximately three times that of hominids. I now make two assumptions. First, I assume that bipedal locomotion, in which all of the body weight is supported by the hind limbs, experiences more selection pressure for cushioning of the foot than is the case in quadrupedal locomotion. The thickness of the sole pad in the quadrupedal, knuckle-walking gorilla would therefore be increased in a biped of gorilla size. Professional human runners, who experience impact forces at heel strike of three to five times that experienced during walking (Roy and Irvin 1983: 422), are forced to control foot movement and absorb shock with specially constructed shoes and orthotic devices. In effect, they must create artificial sole pads in addition to the natural cushioning of the sole, and even then cushioning is not always adequate to prevent injury in running athletes. This is especially the case in marathon running, where impact forces acting over a distance often cause overuse injuries. Running bipedal hominids thus experience foot impact forces several times that experienced during walking, and often suffer as a result of inadequate natural sole pads, which have been evolved to withstand walking impact. I believe that this demonstrates that, if bipedal hominid body weight were multiplied several times--the equivalent of the increase in impact force experienced during running--the thickness of the sole pad would be correspondingly increased to ensure efficient bipedal walking. In short, if gorillas were bipeds instead of quadrupeds, their average greatest sole pad thickness would perhaps be about 6-7.5 cm. I also assume that the cushioning efficiency of the sole pad in walking modem hominids is at or near the biomechanical optimum for a bipedal mammal.

If the ankle of the Elk Wallow creatures were set farther forward on the foot than is the case in modem hominids (Krantz 1983: 60), the greatest thickness of the sole pad might occur closer to the front of the foot, and not at the heel, as is the case in gorillas and hominids. The exact position of this maximum thickness would depend on the manner in which the foot contacts the substrate--that is, whether the heel or the forward part of the foot contacts the ground first (or perhaps the entire sole contacts the ground at once). It is possible therefore, that Krantz has greatly underestimated the thickness of the pad at the middle of the sole, perhaps close to where its greatest thickness would occur. If the average thickness of the sole pad is about 2-2.5 cm in the heel region of modern bipedal hominids with a mean weight of 60 kg (Eisenberg 1981), then it is not unreasonable to reconstruct the pad on the sole of the Elk Wallow creatures as being between 10-15 cm at its greatest thickness, if these creatures are bipedal and have a weight of 400 kg, as Krantz estimates. I am simply multiplying the thickness of the hominid sole pad by six to achieve a similar kind of cushioning efficiency in an unknown bipedal mammal whose body weight may be six times greater than that of hominids. Again, this reconstruction assumes that the cushioning efficiency of the sole pad in modern hominids is at or near the biomechanical optimum for bipedal mammals. Details imprinted on the side of the Elk Wallow prints and the edges of the footprint indentations themselves indicate that an extremely flexible sole pad is present (Krantz 1983: 64-65).

A question now presents itself. If the Elk Wallow sole pad should have a thickness of 1 0-15 cm at its greatest depth, and should be extremely flexible, then what is the likelihood of the prints themselves preserving an extremely detailed record of anatomy and locomotion? Would not the collapse of the sidewalls of the print impressions as the foot is withdrawn obscure fine details? The print impressions would be wider at the bottom than the top, and would be subject to such collapse. Some record of wider span at the bottom seems to be preserved in the Elk Wallow prints. Slight movements of the flexible tissue of the sole would tend to erase details, even if collapse of soil at the edges of the prints did not occur. It might be that, as body weight causes compression of the sole pad, the foot would expand and extend laterally. Analysis of gait would be incomplete or inaccurate if it did not allow for these lateral shifts, which would significantly broaden the print. Very detailed analysis of locomotion by examination of footprints to yield evidence of the sequence of weight transfer (Napier 1973), and taxonomic assignation by fine examination of dermatoglyphics might therefore be subject to a certain margin of error. Only under exceptional conditions would the substrate be able to preserve an accurate picture of the living foot. The fine-grained loess soil at the Elk Wallow site may represent such conditions, but this is not the case for most areas in which prints of creatures like those presumably responsible for these prints have been collected and studied.

Another question concerns the depth of the prints themselves. If body weight is supported by such a sole pad, the large surface area of the sole would spread the weight over a relatively wide area, so that only faint tracks would be left on hard ground. In the elephant, for example, the cushioning sole pad is so thick that the foot has an externally plantigrade appearance, although the foot skeleton is held in a semi-digitigrade position. That is, the elephant's heel appears externally to be touching the ground, but the animal is actually walking with the heel portion of its foot skeleton raised. The large, thick ~ole pad allows the animal to traverse extremely rough terrain and move silently, but the sole pad also spreads the great body weight so efficiently that individual tracks, although they cover a large area, are fainter than one might assume from the known body weight. Sikes (1971: Plate 8) shows the prints of one African elephant in firm, sandy soil. Although the print of one foot overlies the other print, pressing the soil down twice, the impressions are rather shallow. If a large sole pad spreads even massive body weight so efficiently, why do the Elk Wallow prints appear so deep? It is unlikely that the body weight exceeds the estimated 400 kg, and the sediment does not seem to have been very soft. It is possible that the sole pad of the Elk Wallow creatures is not as efficient as that of the elephant at distributing body weight over a large surface, but some type of sole pad does seem to have been present, and the estimate of its greatest depth is based on the weight inferred by Krantz (1983).

I am reasonably certain that the Elk Wallow prints are authentic. However, I do have reservations about the prints recording a precise and accurate picture of details of weight transfer. While certain portions of the casts show remarkably fine structures, Krantz (1983) is forced to select small areas from the casts to discuss dermatoglyphic evidence. This would appear to indicate that the flexible sole tissue is erasing detail. I am also puzzled by the depth of the prints. Perhaps experimentation with an artificial sole pad which could mimic the texture of the thick sole pad tissue in such mammals as camelids and elephants might resolve how much known detail can be reliably transferred from such a device onto loess soil, and thence onto plaster, and whether the dynamics of locomotion can be inferred from print and cast. The question of the depth of print impressions in relation to body weight might also be examined, if the device were capable of dissipating load like living tissue.

If the question of the depth of the impressions can be answered, the likelihood that the Elk Wallow creatures possess a large sole pad could lead to new insights into the anatomy and locomotion of such unknown animals. One interesting possibility is that the Elk Wallow creatures, like elephants, might have a semi-digitigrade foot skeleton, although the large cushioning sole pad would give the external foot a plantigrade appearance. This might account for the great amount of weight apparently carried on the forepart of the foot. Rotational movement at the ankle joint would be lost, however, so that envisioning an enlarged version of a hominid subtalar joint, for example, would be incorrect. Although Krantz (1977) has argued that the digits of the Sasquatch foot are short for biomechanical reasons, the short visible part of the digits might be arrayed at the forward edge of the sole pad, and their true length be obscured by the structure of the pad. The hind limb anatomy and gait of the Elk Wallow creatures may be unique among mammals, and not easily inferred from comparison with living mammals of a single order, even if the dermatoglyphic evidence points to the primates.

Finally, as Napier (1973) has stressed, track ways of animals, and not single isolated prints, are necessary for detailed analysis of gait. Future researchers should be prepared to make casts of partial track ways--obviously not an easy task.

Sasquatch foot anatomy has been examined in detail by Krantz (1977), who argues that, in comparison with living hominids, these creatures have a lengthened heel and a shortened forefoot. This leads to a reconstruction in which the ankle joint is set farther forward on the foot, a point which is also made in Krantz (1983). The power arm of the foot is thereby lengthened and the load arm is shortened. This reconstruction is derived from Krantz's belief that changing the length of the lever arms in the foot is the simplest evolutionary solution to the problem posed by large body size in bipeds. Large body size creates a problem if body weight increases cubically, while skeletal dimensions increase areally. Hence, Krantz proposes that allometric or size-related considerations affect body design in bipeds, which are significantly larger than modern hominids.
Recent research on the allometry of mammalian limb bones, however, demonstrates that the lengths and diameters of limb bones in a series of species stretching from shrew to elephant-size scale close to geometric similarity (Alexander et al. 1979a). Obviously, there are tremendous differences in adult body mass, but the linear dimensions of the limb bones in the series are geometrically similar. For example, the elephant femur and humerus are not very much wider relative to their length than in much smaller animals. This surprising conclusion--which upsets statements on the allometric relationship between limb bone dimensions and body weight going back to the time of Galileo--also holds true within the primates, because six primate species (including modern hominids) are included in the mammalian survey (Alexander et al. 1979a). This research implies that the limb bones of a biped much larger than a modern hominid need not be strikingly different in form in order to support a much greater body weight.

Stresses on limb bones of moving animals versus stationary animals have also been examined (Alexander 1977, Alexander et al. 1979b). Because movement causes several times more stress on the limb bones than does standing still, the increase of limb bone diameter in step with length increase becomes even more surprising. How do large animals exist in spite of what appears to be a biomechanical paradox? The answer lies in gait differences. Movement patterns of different sized mammals demonstrate that the large mammals move in such a way that their limbs remain in contact with the ground for a longer time, which decreases stress in the limb bones. The reduction of relative stresses in these bones compensates for greater body weight. The maximum stresses acting on the limbs of large animals are comparable to those of smaller animals, so that the bones of the larger species do not need to be much more robust (Alexander 1977, Alexander et al. 1979b).

Two conclusions can be drawn from this research. The first is that unknown bipedal animals much larger than modern hominids, but hominid-like in position of the trunk and use of a striding gait in locomotion, are not an a priori impossibility. The second conclusion is that, because large animals compensate for heavy bodies mainly through gait pattern, differences between large, unknown bipeds and hominids might lie in the amount and length of time of foot contact with the ground, rather than in gross differences in skeletal structure.

Dermatoglyphic evidence from the Elk Wallow prints is necessarily confined at present to description and taxonomic assignation. Nevertheless, it is possible that, if such evidence were to become more abundant in the future, details of behavior might be reconstructed from dermatoglyphic evidence. Primate species can be used to illustrate this contention.
There is a substantial body of data on the volar skin and dermatoglyphics of primates. Cartmill (1974, 1979) demonstrated that volar skin was subject to selection pressure involving allometry, with volar pad coalescence occurring in larger primates as an adaptation to increase its frictional characteristics. Biegert (1963) advocated the use of primate dermatoglyphics and volar pad structure as taxonomic traits, and in the reconstruction of phylogeny, but Meier (1980) reported evidence that dermatoglyphic pattern intensity in non-human primates may be more related to function than it is to taxonomy or phylogeny. The use of dermatoglyphics as indicators of biological distance in humans has equivocal results, which do not necessarily coincide with biochemical or anthropometrical variation (Meier 1980). This may not be the case in non-human primate species.

Dermatoglyphics appear to be useful in identifying individual animals, demonstrating group cohesiveness, and allowing analysis of introgressive hybridization in an Ethiopian site with troops of both olive and hamadryas baboons, and a troop of hybrids of these two species (Jolly and Peterson 1984). Analysis of dermatoglyphics in mantled howler monkeys on Barro Colorado Island, Panama, allowed inferences to be made about the evolutionary history of these monkeys on the island (Froehlich and Thorington 1982). Inferences about the colonization of one of the peninsulas by two different howler troops, and the differentiation of neighboring troops from a common troop are based on dermatoglyphic analysis. Thus, dermatoglyphic evidence can be used not simply for taxonomic or phylogenetic purposes, but for social and historical reconstruction as well. If the Elk Wallow prints and associated dermatoglyphics hold up under detailed scrutiny, and if many additional prints with dermatoglyphics are found, the possibility exists that the genetic relatedness of individuals can be assessed, along with the possibility of differentiating variation at a group level, allowing inferences about the existence of social groups, gene flow, and the process of dispersal of groups or individuals within a given habitat unit.

There is a reasonable probability that the Elk Wallow prints were made by an unknown animal species. I have examined the presence of a large sole pad in some detail, and have reconstructed a sole pad whose greatest depth would approximate 10-15 cm. Two problems still concern me: 1) the degree to which the prints preserve undistorted information about dermatoglyphic pattern and locomotion, and 2) the depth of the print impressions, in spite of the presence of a sole pad which should efficiently distribute body weight.

I have also discussed the interaction of body weight and locomotion, and have indicated that, because large animals compensate for great weight mainly through gait pattern, gross differences in skeletal structure between large unknown bipeds and modern hominids are not necessarily to be expected. A larger biped would, however, need a greater length of time of foot contact with the ground. Furthermore, unknown bipedal animals much larger than modern hominids, but hominid-like in trunk position and use of a striding gait, are not intrinsically impossible.
If dermatoglyphic evidence similar to that from the Elk Wallow prints were to become more abundant, behavioral reconstruction could be attempted, given the lines of behavioral research that have opened recently from dermatoglyphic research in primates.

Finally, I question Krantz's identification of the Elk Wallow prints as "hominid," by virtue of the marked adduction of digit I (Krantz 1983: 53). Living primates show many variations in extremity structure. For example, New World ateline and Old World colobine monkeys independently reduced digit I in the hand, sometimes to a remarkable degree. This would be an example of the parallel evolution of a trait in two different infraorders of living primates. Conversely, it is also possible for members of a single family to show remarkable divergence in extremity structure. Thus, the African great apes develop knuckle-walking specializations of the hands while the orang-utan does not, instead lengthening the entire hand and digits II-V and reducing digit I. The foot of the orang-utan is similarly lengthened, with concomitant elongation of digits II-V, and reduction of digit I, sometimes to a vestigial state. Given the great evolutionary potential for variation in extremity structure documented in living primates, it may be problematic to identify the Elk Wallow creatures as hominids by virtue of a markedly adducted hallux. In any case, Krantz also lists a number of traits, which completely differentiate the Elk Wallow prints from those of modern or extinct hominids, such as the anterior placement of the ankle and extremely short digits. Although reported sightings of these animals emphasize similarities to hominids, and dermatoglyphic evidence points to the primate order, analysis of the prints demonstrates the existence of foot structure and locomotion unlike anything known among mammals. The prints are not simply enlarged and broadened versions of hominid prints. Therefore, the makers of the prints do not have the anatomy, body proportions, and locomotion of living hominids.

Alexander, Robert McN.
1977 Allometry of the Limbs of Antelopes (Bovidae). Journal of Zoology, London, Vol. 183: 125-46.
Alexander, Robert McN., A. S. Jayes, G. M. O. Maloiy, and E. M. Wathuta
1979a Allometry of the Limb Bones of Mammals from Shrews (Sorex) to Elephant (Loxodonta). Journal of Zoology, London, Vol. 189: 305-14.
Alexander, Robert McN., G. M. O. Maloiy, B. Hunter, A. S. Jayes, and J. Nturibi
1979b Mechanical Stresses in Fast Locomotion in Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and Elephant (Loxodonta africana). Journal of Zoology, London, Vol. 189:135-44.
Biegert, Josef
1963 The Evolution of Characteristics of the Skull, Hands, and Feet for Primate Taxonomy. In Sherwood L. Washburn (ed.), Classification and Human Evolution. Chicago: Aldine.
Cartmill, Matt
1974 Pads and Claws in Arboreal Locomotion. In Farish A. Jenkins (ed.), Primate Locomotion. New York: Academic Press.
1979 The Volar Skin of Primates: Its Frictional Characteristics and their Functional Significance. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 50:497-510.
Eisenberg, John
1981 The Mammalian Radiations. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Froehlich, Jeffry W., and Richard W. Thorington
1982 The Genetic Structure and Socioecology of Howler Monkeys (Alouatta palliata) on Barro Colorado Island. In Egbert G. Leigh, A. S. Rand, and Donald M. Windsor (eds.), The Ecology ora Tropical Forest. Seasonal Rhythms and Long-Term Changes. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press.
Jolly, Clifford J., and A. K. Peterson
1984 Variation in the Palmar Dermatoglyphics of Ethiopian Baboons. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 63:175-76 (abstract).
Klenerman, L., et al.
1976 Common Causes of Pain in the Region of the Foot. In L. Klenerman (ed.), The Foot and Its Disorders. Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Krantz, Grover S.
1977 Anatomy of the Sasquatch Foot. In Roderick Sprague and Grover S. Krantz (eds.), The Scientist Looks at the Sasquatch. Anthropological Monographs of the University of Idaho no. 3. Moscow, Idaho: University Press of Idaho.
1983 Anatomy and Dermatoglyphics of Three Sasquatch Footprints. Cryptozoology, Vol. 2: 53-81.

© Susan Cachel, Department of Anthropology, Rutgers University 1985


There are also some small images I have of sections of each cast.

Attached image(s)
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Editorials Redux Part 2

Editorial: Are some researchers afraid to be truly independent and think for themselves?

A lot of the time, many researchers have their own thoughts about certain individuals in the field of Bigfoot research. But sometimes people get swayed very easily by others in the field and form their opinions based on others' opinions rather than their own thoughts and opinions. I have fallen into this trap, unfortunately. Well, that is OVER for me. How much time have I wasted psychoanalyzing people and saying "so-and-so did this, so-and-so said that?", and most of the time these opinions have been based on what others have said about so-and-so. This is time I could've spent getting to know certain individuals in the field instead of being so jealous and back-biting and bitter about certain people. I admit, I have fallen into the trap of letting others determine my opinions on certain individuals in the field, and I need to stop being swayed by what Joe Blow said about John Doe and have my own damn opinions on people. That kind of crap is rumor-mongering and gossip and it has got to stop. We are ALL in this together to try to solve this, so who gives a crap if it is John Doe or Joe Blow that solves it, as long as it is solved? I would encourage others to do the same as I have, and quit being swayed by what is said on this forum or that messageboard or in some chatroom and form your own opinion on someone, good or bad. I am not saying you have to like certain individuals in this field, but for God's sake, stop all the back-biting and rumor-mongering and bitterness, and let us all work TOGETHER as a unit to solve this mystery. Billy Willard made a good point to me in a chatroom last night when he said that we can't get to know someone through a computer screen, and he is absolutely right. If we spent half as much time in the field actually LOOKING for evidence as we do sitting anonymously behind our computer screens tearing others down, we would be in a boat in the middle of Loch Ness by now!!!!!!

Editorial: Why so much in-fighting?

Something that has plagued the Bigfoot community for years is something only as simple as ego. In-fighting, jealousy, back-biting, vicious attacks on others. I have one question for this-why? Aren't we all supposed to work together? Aren't we supposed to work as a community and stop all the back-biting and in-fighting? Obviously not, as there is so much ego and jealousy in this field. Researchers even go so far as to spread unconfirmed rumors about others, more particularly if they have a vendetta against each other. It's no wonder that after nearly 50 years, a specimen has yet to be brought in and confirmation of the species has yet to occur. What people need to do is set aside their differences and try to work together to solve this mystery. It is sickening to see the "He said, she said" BS permeate this field as it does, and we all need to realize we have more in common than we have different. C'mon, Bigfooters, let's cooperate to solve this mystery!

Editorials Redux...

I feel like I need to do this to get the message through to some people that I, Henry May, have taken a new stance, and that is to research BIGFOOT, NOT other researchers. I feel this is important, and I will run these editorials as I see fit.

Editorial: Should we be neutral on Tom Biscardi?

I can already predict I will take some heat for this editorial, but I am willing to take it anyway. I have a neutral stance on Tom Biscardi because I do not know the man, so I cannot say whether or not he is a hoaxer or an alleged hoaxer or a fraud or whatever. Sure, most of the Bigfoot Community has their own opinions on Mr. Biscardi, but some people go against the grain and have a neutral stance on him until they meet him. Some like myself have decided to make up our own minds about Biscardi rather than following along with the rest of the Bigfoot Community. Of course, what happens when a credible researcher associates with Biscardi or goes on his radio show is, most of the Bigfooters jump on the person that decided to associate with Biscardi or say that person is a sell-out. That is utterly ridiculous and absolutely unprofessional. People choose to associate with Biscardi or go on his radio show to get out the message of Bigfoot, not because it's the Tom Biscardi show. Why don't certain individuals in the BF Community let others make up their own minds about somebody before they condemn someone? Am I defending Biscardi? No, although it may seem like I am. He has made his share of mistakes and goofs in his time, but haven't we all? Biscardi's detractors tend to harp on the "Capture story" from two years ago and use that against him, but perhaps they need to re-examine that before they condemn the man. Now, am I trying to tell people to change their hostile stances towards Tom? No, because I cannot make people do anything they don't want to. But, at least back off on publicly bashing the man until you have the absolute facts on him. Bash in private all you want, but bashing someone in public can come back to bite you, so be careful. Now, to close, I will say this-he can come off as a bit of a slick, used-car salesman type to those who don't really know him, and that can be detrimental to Tom, but let's not forget, Roger Patterson was also a used-car salesman type, and look what he did. A lot of people ask "What has Tom Biscardi done for the Bigfoot Community?" Well, I say he has promoted awareness for the studies of these animals and has given people the opportunity to tell their stories of their sightings without fear of ridicule. No matter what one thinks of Tom, at least he gets out there. There is an old saying-"Sweep around your own front door before you sweep around someone else's."

Editorial: Is this hunt about Sasquatch or personalities?

In some recent discussions I have had in recent days with trusted friends, we have been perhaps forgetting and taking our focus off the subject of our search, the elusive Sasquatch. We have instead focused on certain personalities, questionable or otherwise, and it's fun for a while, but it gets to the point to where this becomes nothing more than rumor-mongering and gossip and not about the true research. One of the individuals who seems to generate the most discussion is Tom Biscardi, who everyone in the Sasquatch community has an opinion about good or bad. He has been the subject of discussions I have participated in on many a night recently, especially since after the recent Paris, Texas expedition in which some things have been said that were considered "questionable." OK, well, so what if a tornado was not seen "on the ground," or there was no tornado warning for the area? A tornado was seen in the sky, wasn't it? It only becomes a tornado when it hits the ground, so what if Biscardi and his team called a funnel cloud a tornado? So what if things are misunderstood and exaggerated about Biscardi? Is this field about personalities and their perceived screw-ups, or about researching an unknown, hairy biped? Why don't we quit gossiping about so-and-so or such-and-such and get on with the business of proving these things exist? Have we turned into a bunch of old ladies talking over the neighbor's fence about so-and-so down the street who committed some unpardonable sin? Even if the gossip is true, what does it benefit us? What benefit is there in us destroying someone's reputation? Does it get us any closer to solving this mystery? Does running Tom Biscardi, Loren Coleman, Matt Moneymaker or any other polarizing individual in this field of inquiry down help us get that one piece of evidence that proves to the world there is a Sasquatch? Of course not. Now, things that do help us get closer to solving it is diligent field research, radio shows interviewing the researchers who get out there and put together this puzzle, blogs which provide information to the researchers, organizations getting together and having discussions on theories and ideas of how to do better research. These are positive steps, not tearing someone down, not sitting around gossiping like a bunch of old ladies. If we spent half as much time trying to solve this mystery as we do trying to tear someone down, we'd have moved on to Loch Ness by now!!!

SXSW 2008: Jay Delaney on "Not Your Typical Bigfoot Movie"
By Stephen Saito I'll start with a spoiler: You won't see Bigfoot in Jay Delaney's documentary, "Not Your Typical Bigfoot Movie." (Actually, that's a matter ...

Friday, March 14, 2008

Review: Beyond The Edge Radio 3-14-08

This was a GREAT show, with guests Steve Kulls and Billy Willard, who discussed their research in the first hour and answered questions from the chat, including from Bill Green and I, who called in and asked Steve and Billy some great questions. Then, in the second hour, Eric, Sean, Steve and Billy got to vent, talking about how the Bigfoot community needs to focus on BIGFOOT, NOT Bigfoot Researchers, and a lot of good points were made by all four gentlemen, including Melissa when she called in, and I also called back in and made my points on things. All in all, a GREAT show. Next Friday delves into the world of Ghosts and the paranormal, with guest Rosemary Ellen Guiley, beginning at 9:00 EST/8:00 Central at You can also download past episodes there, as well as subscribe through iTunes. And as always, we encourage you to please tune in and support great research.
A photograph taken from a distance, some mauled sheep and some droppings are adding up to a large black feline prowling the Ballylawn area of Manorcunningham, County Donegal, Ireland. Now local law enforcement officers are prowling the area to corral the beast. With photo. Also, Rare Panther Tracks Spotted in Volusia County.

Pinky Expedition: Investigative Breakthrough

Posted by: Loren Coleman on March 14th, 2008

Sometimes when investigating cryptids, it’s not how you ask but who and what you are asking about that gets you some more insightful answers. It was a good day in the Pinky detective story and search.

Investigate Further: Pinky Expedition: Investigative Breakthrough »

Norman Memorial Reminder

Posted by: Loren Coleman on March 14th, 2008

Details on Scott’s memorial.

Investigate Further: Norman Memorial Reminder »

The Last Bigfoot?

Posted by: Loren Coleman on March 14th, 2008

Is this how it will feel? Video.

Investigate Further: The Last Bigfoot? »

Pinky Expedition Notes: Dinosaur World

Posted by: Loren Coleman on March 13th, 2008

It seemed like a side trek into the 1950s, but it merely was only another attempt to find out more about Pinky. Photos.

Investigate Further: Pinky Expedition Notes: Dinosaur World »

Pinky Expedition Notes, Continued

Posted by: Loren Coleman on March 12th, 2008

Here is another update from my observations along the St. Johns River of Florida, and my search for Pinky.

Investigate Further: Pinky Expedition Notes, Continued »

Beyond The Edge Radio Tonight...

Eric and the returning Sean Forker will have as their guests the Squatch Detective, Steve Kulls and Sasquatch Watch of Virginia founder Billy Willard, both co-hosts of Squatch Detective Radio, beginning at 9:00 EST/8:00 Central at And as always, we encourage you to please tune in and support great research.

Review: Sasquatch Triangle 3-13-08

This was a great show, with guests Sonya Horstman and Janice Newell, who discussed their research and experiences (Sonya described her sightings, one in 2004, and one in 2006), as well as Sonya's psychic experience. I called in and asked Sonya and Janice about their research and whether they had found footprints with dermal ridges or hair or fecal matter (Sonya said they had found some strange hair, and had sent it off, but had not gotten any response on it as of yet). Don also dropped an announcement on the show-that of the fourth speaker at the upcoming 20th-Annual Ohio Bigfoot Conference-none other than Russian Hominologist Igor Bourtsev. Next week, Don will have as his guest Larry Battson of Indiana, who recently had a widely distributed article written about him, starting at 9:00 EST/8:00 Central at You can also find downloadable past shows of both the Sasquatch Triangle and the Sasquatch Experience there, as well as subscribe via iTunes. And as always, we encourage you to please tune in and support great research.

Thursday, March 13, 2008

In Middleboro, MA, selectmen brought in ghost hunters to check out the eerie happenings at Town Hall. It's not certain how prepared the selectmen were to hear what the paranormal researchers heard. Also, Pair Plays Ghostly Recording; Ghost Hunters Coming to Huntington's Downtown Library; Creepy County Building Takes Center Stage; The Spectre of Reason and Is the Old Jail Haunted by Ghosts?

A discovery certain to stir up more bitter debate about remains found on Indonesia's Flores Island in 2004 occurred recently on the Micronesian island of Palau. Dwarf skeletons found there and dated between 900 and 2,800 years ago have been determined to be "insular humans," peoplewho devolved to dwarf stature in keeping with impoverished sustenance on the island. Also, Micronesian Fossil Pygmies Discovered.

Pinky Expedition Notes: Dinosaur World

Posted by: Loren Coleman on March 13th, 2008

It seemed like a side trek into the 1950s, but it merely was only another attempt to find out more about Pinky. Photos.

Investigate Further: Pinky Expedition Notes: Dinosaur World »

Wednesday, March 12, 2008

Sasquatch Triangle Tonight...

Don will have as his guests two Ohio eyewitnesses, Sonya Horstman and Jan Newell, beginning at 9:00 EST/8:00 Central at And as always, we encourage you to please tune in and support great research.

Review: Let's Talk Bigfoot 3-12-08

This was a great show, with guests Bob and Jim Zenor, who discussed quite a bit about their experiences and their field work and their theories on what our big hairy friends are, as well as their opinions on the P/G Movie and what it contains. They also took several questions from the chatroom, but no one called in. There was also discussion about what kind of crest "Patty" might have, and also theories as to what Sasquatch might be. Bob and Jim were discussing how Sasquatch could be one of the members of the genus Homo, such as Homo Habilis or Homo Erectus. Some really dascinating discussion. All in all, a great show. Next week, Kathy and Teresa will have Randy Harrington (driveroperator) beginning at 10:00 EST/9:00 Central at Also, you can download all the episodes so far there, as well as subscribe on iTunes. And as always, we encourage you to please tune in and support great research.
Ancient Bones of Small Humans Discovered in Palau and another look at some Bigfoot information can be found at The Blogsquatcher: Update 2 on Easton Bowhunting Footage.

Pinky Expedition Notes, Continued

Posted by: Loren Coleman on March 12th, 2008

Here is another update from my observations along the St. Johns River of Florida, and my search for Pinky.

Investigate Further: Pinky Expedition Notes, Continued »

The Hobbit Hunt

Posted by: Loren Coleman on March 12th, 2008

The systematic study of Proto-Pygmies in Oceania seems tied to the probable findings of future fossil evidence for Homo floresiensis beyond Flores.

Investigate Further: The Hobbit Hunt »

Best & Bottom Bigfoot Flicks

Posted by: Loren Coleman on March 12th, 2008

half human

Dave Coleman (no relation) authors today’s guest blog of the highs and lows of the Sasquatch films, which is something he simply has to ‘wade’ into however deep the ’swamp waters’ may be.

Investigate Further: Best & Bottom Bigfoot Flicks »

Tuesday, March 11, 2008

Let's Talk Bigfoot Tonight...

Teresa and Kathy will have BFF members Bob and Jim Zenor as their guests beginning at 10:00 EST/9:00 Central at And as always, we encourage you to please tune in and support great research.

Take a close look at this photo...

This is a photo from an eBay item of the Patterson/Gimlin Movie cast poured by Roger Patterson on the day of filming. Take a particular look at the white one on the left. You can see, underneath the big toe, a large lump or bump which I discussed a few weeks ago here on the blog. That is the bump I was talking about which may indeed be one of two things-either a casting artifact or a natural bump behind the big toe like we have on our feet. Take a look at it and tell me what you think.

Review: Bigfoot Quest 3-11-08

This was a pretty great show, with Bob and Mike basically holding an open-mic program after Todd Partain did not show up. Folks such as Bob's brother Charlie, John Cartwright and Dr. Wade C. called in and discussed things with Bob and Mike, and Mike discussed some new helmet cam set=ups he was contemplating buying and bullet cams. I called in along with Bill Green, and he asked Bob and Mike if they were familiar with some of the recent news items in the BF World, and they said they were. I talked to Mike about his cameras and his set-ups and also some of the different systems I had seen in use on various Bigfoot programs. Dr. Wade took up the majority of the last half-hour discussing a sideshow attraction he had seen which looked to be half-human half-chimpanzee, which led to a discussion of Oliver, the bipedal chimp. It was a great show despite no guest, and Mike and Bob have one of the best shows on the Internet. Dunno what the guys have in store for next week, but it should be a good one, beginning at 9:00 EST/8:00 Central at You can download past shows there, as well as subscribe on iTunes. And as always, we encourage you to please tune in and support great research.